Cardiovascular risk indicates the probability to acquire cardiovascular conditions such as heart attack, stroke or peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Certain cardiovascular risk factors increase this probability – the main one being arteriosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis is the clogging up of blood vessels by fatty substances, blood clots, connective tissue and in small amounts calc. In the long run this causes the lumen of the vessels to become narrow. The following organs are the most affected by arteriosclerosis:
Avoidable risk factors for arteriosclerosis are
A high number of these risk factors are due to lack of physical exercise, malnutrition and high intake of alcohol.
Non-influenceable risk factors include age, being male as well as genetic disposition.
It is difficult to predict the individual influence of each of these risk factors, however, it is certain that the unhealthier the life style is and the more risk factors accumulate, the higher the risk of developing arteriosclerosis and thus heart attack or peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
Arterial hypertension, also called high blood pressure in everyday language, is a disorder, where the blood pressure of the arterial system is chronically increased. According to the WHO definition, systolic blood pressure over 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure over 90 mmHg is considered hypertension. Reasons for hypertension are conditions of the hormone system, the cardiovascular system, as well as kidney problems. The majority of hypertension cases, however, are due to unknown causes.
Quite frequently, hypertension goes unnoticed for a number of years, as it does not cause any problems in its early stages, and is thus often only diagnosed after the onset of any complications. Consequential damage, like coronary heart disease with its possible sequelae of heart attacks, kidney failure and strokes, is responsible for the majority of the death cases in developed countries. There are different groups of medications available, which in connection with changes of the life style, can decrease the blood pressure and thus reduce the risk of complications.
Consequences of acute hypertension (hypertensive crisis: increase in blood pressure > 120 mmHg diastolic):
Consequences of chronically increased blood pressure:
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person has high blood sugar levels as a result of the body not being able to absorb the glucose from the blood. At the beginning, elevated sugar levels produce symptoms such as increased thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue. If not treated and consequently the sugar level stays elevated over years, there will be damage to vessels and organs (arteriosclerosis, heart attack, retinal disorder, nephropathy, neuropathy, diabetic foot ulcers). Diabetes is diagnosed if
Casual plasma glucose levels can be tested at any time of the day and even fasting is not required, however, for a fasting level, the patient is required to fast 8 hours before. Long term values do not depend on food intake and can be done at any time of the day.
Body mass index (BMI) defines people as overweight when their BMI is over 25km/m2 and as obese as of 30kg/m2. The body mass index is calculated by dividing the subject’s mass (kg) by the square of his or her height (m) (BMI = kg/m2). The decisive factor for a cardiovascular disease, however, is not only the BMI but also the fat distribution. Fat accumulations around the stomach and the inner organs have shown to be more harmful. Thus, waist girth of over 92 cm in males and over 80 cm in females increases the risk of cardiovascular conditions. Weight reduction is advised in such cases.
Diet and life style should be reconsidered in case of obesity. The right choice of foods can have a positive influence onto metabolic disorders such as lipoid metabolic disorder or elevated blood sugar levels. High fiber foods, whole meal products, sufficient fluid intake, as well as a good variety of lettuce, fruit and vegetables are recommended. Known sources of fat like butter, nuts or mayonnaise as well sugary foods, salt and alcohol should be avoided.
Smokers suffer from an 2-5 times elevated risk of heart attack, depending on the number of cigarettes consumed per day and the years of smoking (pack-years). Nicotine penetrates into the autonomic nervous system and causes stenosis of the arteries, increases the heart beat and the blood pressure. In sum, the risk of arteriosclerosis is increased.
Stress is one of the core risk factors for coronary heart conditions. It leads to an increase of the stress hormone cortisol, which triggers the production of molecules damaging the vessels. For a long time cardiologists considered the stress factor primarily in “manager-type” patients, i.e. people under huge pressure to perform, working more than 12 hours per day with no time to relax. Meanwhile, it has emerged that stress per se is not the decisive factor, rather the way stress is felt is more crucial. If stress fires a person up and is connected with the feeling of success and achievement – psychologists call this eustress – it rarely has a negative impact onto the heart, of course under the condition that there is no consumption of performance-enhancing drugs, such as cocaine. Stress with a high level of frustration, called distress, has a much higher influence onto the function of the heart. To reduce stress one should relax by regularly exercising or by methods such as autogenic training or mediation.
Lack of physical exercise might not directly lead to damage in the vessels, but all other risk factors for arteriosclerosis are avoided or improved by physical movement; and progression of the condition can be brought to a halt. At the same time, stamina increases. Best results of the miracle exercise are achieved through regularity and adequate intensity, though excessive overtraining should be avoided. It is best to consult the physician first to assess which type of sports is appropriate. Personal performance limits can be established through exercise ECG.
Endurance sports such as walking, gentle running, cross country skiing, swimming and cycling are well suited. Training should last for a longer period (optimal: 30 mins) with low to medium intensity, whereby it has to be stated that frequency is better than duration. Therefore, it is better to train 3 times a week for 30 minutes rather than once for 90. It is important not to demand too much from oneself and angina pectoris pain should not increase during exercise. Even extensive walks three to four times a week suffice to become healthier. Power training with its short but intensive stress is less recommended. Such sports include tennis, mountain biking, squash or weight training with heavy weights.
The risk for developing coronary heart condition is clearly increased in case of a positive family history (first degree relatives with coronary heart conditions). In order to assess the risk of arteriosclerosis, lipoprotein-a values in the blood have to be measured. The higher the value of lipoprotein-a, the higher the risk for arteriosclerosis, despite the fact that the amount of lipoprotein-a in our blood is genetically determined. This value poses an additional independent indicator for arteriosclerosis. The genetic disposition cannot be influenced, which means that the total of risk factors should be kept as low as possible (blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol, etc.).